General Science and Ability Topics | Part III

General Science and Ability Topics | Part III

General Science and Ability consist of two portions. The first one is General Science having 60 marks in exams and the other one is the General Ability portion having 40 marks. This subject and the other two, Current Affairs and Pakistan Affairs combine to form a General Knowledge subject. In the CSS exams DMC, marks are counted for the collective three subjects. If anyone of them is having low marks than 40%, which is passing marks, but collectively they obtain more than 120/300, then you are passed in this. Here are some solved questions from previous papers for your help in your CSS/PMS exams plus if you are a science student it will benefit you. So, let’s start:

general science and ability

Q#1: Difference Between Nucleus & Nucleolus

Nucleus Nucleolus
1. It is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. 1. It is a non-membrane-bound structure found within the nucleus.
2. It contains most of the cell’s genetic material and is involved in translation or protein synthesis. 2. It is composed of protein and nucleic acids and is involved in ribosome synthesis.
3. It is typically round and occupies about 10% of the volume. 3. It appears regularly shaped granules and fibers.

Also read: General Science and Ability Topics Part I

Also read: General Science and Ability Topics Part II

Q#2: Difference Between DNA & RNA

1. It stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. 1. It stands for ribonucleic acid.
2. It is found in the nucleus. 2. It is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
3. It contains deoxyribose sugar. 3. It contains ribose sugar.
4. Bases are adenine, thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. 4. Bases are adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine.
5. It contains genetic instructions. 5. It translates the instructions of DNA and synthesizes proteins.
6. It is a double-stranded molecule with a long chain of nucleotides. 6. It is a single-stranded molecule with a shorter chain of nucleotides.
7. Helix geometry of DNA is B-form 7. Helix geometry of RNA is A-form
8. It can be damaged by UV rays exposure. 8. It is more resistant to UV rays.

Q#3: Difference Between SmallPox & Measles

SmallPox Measles
1. It is characterized by the appearance of a large number of vesicles on the trunk, limbs, and face. 1. It is characterized by red spots on the skin, fever malaise (illness), and enlarged lymph nodes.
2. It has been eradicated almost by vaccination. 2. It is not yet eradicated.
3. Its cause is a contagious variola virus. 3. Its cause is the virus of the paramyxovirus family.

Q#4: Difference Between Pig iron & Stainless Steel

Pig Iron Stainless Steel
1. Iron with 2-4% Carbon is called pig iron. 1. Iron with chromium and less than 2% carbon is called stainless steel.
2. It is a crude form of iron and is processed further to from steel and other alloys. 2. It is an end product after the addition of chromium in the steel.
3. It cannot be used to make products directly. 3. It can be used to make products directly.
4. It is not durable and can rust easily. 4. It is durable and cannot rust easily.

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Q#5: Difference Between Cardiac Muscles & Skeletal Muscles

Cardiac Muscles Skeletal Muscles
1. Involuntary nervous system controls cardiac muscles. 1. Voluntary nervous system controls skeletal muscles.
2. Cardiac muscles are found in the heart. 2. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones.
3. Their cells are semi-spindle in shape. 3. Their cells are cylindrical in shape.
4. Its cells are shorter in size. 4. Its cells are longer than cardiac muscles in size.
5. There are only 1 or 2 nuclei in their cells. 5. There are many nuclei in their cells.

Q#6: Difference Between Hormones & Enzymes

Hormones Enzymes
1. Hormones travel through the body to initiate the process. 1. Enzymes are the catalysts that speed up the reactions.
2. They act indirectly through cells. e.g; insulin, a hormone, causes cells to convert glucose to glycogen. 2. They act directly on the things which are going to get affected. e.g; amylase, an enzyme in saliva, directly breaks down starch into sugars.
3. Hormones control aspects of growth and metabolism such as changing of voice and development of musculature during puberty in males. 3. Enzymes mediate all reactions in cells, structure, and synthesis being determined by the DNA.

Also Read: Download Books for General Science and Ability

Q#7: Difference Between Sedimentary Rocks & Igneous Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks Igneous Rocks
1. It is formed by the accumulation of eroded material. 1. It is formed when magma has cooled down and solidified.
2. They are usually found in water bodies i.e sea and ocean. 2. They are usually found in the earth’s crust or mantle.
3. Its examples are shale, limestone, and sandstone. 3. Its examples are granite and basalt.

Q#8: Difference Between Animal Cell & Plant Cell

Animal Cell Plant Cell
1. Its shape is irregularly round due to the absence of a cell wall. 1. Its shape is a regular rectangle due to the presence of a cell wall.
2. They don’t contain plastids and chloroplast. 2. They contain plastids and chloroplast.
3. They contain centrioles. 3. They don’t contain centrioles.
4. Animal cells have one or more vacuoles. 4. Plant cells have one vacuole.
5. They turn sugar into carbon dioxide to make energy (respiration). 5. They turn carbon dioxide into sugar (photosynthesis).

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Q#9: Difference Between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
1. There is no defined nucleus in prokaryotic cells. 1. There is a defined nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
2. They contain no membrane-bound organelles. 2. They contain membrane-bound organelles as well as non-membrane-bound.
3. They have chromosomes dispersed in the cytoplasm. 3. They have chromosomes in the nucleus.
4. Their size is 0.2-2 um in diameter. 4. Their size is 10-100 um in diameter.
5. They have circular chromosomes and lack histone proteins. 5. They have linear chromosomes and histone proteins.

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Q#10: Difference Between Mitosis & Meiosis

Mitosis Meiosis
1. It occurs in somatic cells. 1. It occurs in sex cells only.
2. It produces two daughter cells. 2. It produces four daughter cells.
3. DNA replicates once in mitosis. 3. DNA replicates twice in mitosis.
4. There is no crossing-over involved in this process. 4. There is a crossing over in this process which produces different genetic features.
5. Cell division occurs once in meiosis. 5. Cell division occurs twice in meiosis.
6. There is the same number of chromosomes in parent cells and daughter cells. 6. There is half the number of chromosomes in daughter cells.

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